Pronghorn Antelope

Pronghorn Antelope are hoofed animals, otherwise known as ungulates. Both males and females have a pair of horns, with the females being only a few inches long. Males have 12 inch horns with a prong that juts forward and a pronounced black cheek and forehead. When alarmed, the guard hairs on their rump extend vertically, making the white patch increasingly visible. They are the fastest land animal in North America and can run up to 60 miles per hour!
SCIENTIFIC NAME
Antilocapra americana
CLASSIFICATION
Mammal
LIFE SPAN
5-10 Years
SIZE
40-60 ” | 95-125 lbs
STATE CONSERVATION STATUS
  • State Protected
FEDERAL CONSERVATION STATUS
Not Evaluated
GAME STATUS
Game
GAME TYPE
Big Game
  1. Washoe
  2. Humboldt
  3. Pershing
  4. Churchill
  5. Mineral
  6. Lyon
  7. Douglas
  8. Carson City
  9. Storey
  1. Elko
  2. Lander
  3. Eureka
  4. White Pine
  1. Esmeralda
  2. Nye
  3. Lincoln
  4. Clark

Habitat & Range

Pronghorn prefer gentle rolling to flat, wide-open topography. These habitats allow the Antelope to spot predators from far distances and quickly escape. They are primarily found in the mountain ranges of northern and central Nevada.

  • Cold desert shrubland and sagebrush
  • Grasslands

Threats

  • Habitat Loss

Natural History

Pronghorn Antelope consume over 150 different species of grasses, forbs and browse plants. This wide range of food allows them to occupy a variety of different habitats. In the early fall, male bucks will fight for harems of up to 15 female does during a two-week breeding period. Most Antelope mate for the first time at 15-16 months old and then breed annually. After a gestation period of about 250 days, the doe will give birth to one fawn at first birth and twins thereafter. Fawns weigh five to seven pounds at birth, but grow quickly on the extremely rich milk from their mother. At five days the fawns can outrun a man, and at three weeks they will begin nibbling vegetation.

Fun Facts

In the mid 1800’s it is presumed Pronghorn Antelope were more abundant than today, but saw a decrease in number during the height of livestock and mining settlements. In the early to mid 20th century, conservation efforts including the establishment of the Charles Sheldon Antelope Refuge, helped increase Antelope numbers in the state.